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Template:About Template:Infobox settlement

Manila (pronounced Template:IPA-en Template:Respell; Template:Lang-fil), officially the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines and one of the 16 cities that make up Metro Manila, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world with a population of 20 million people.[1][2] It is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay on the western side of the island of Luzon. Several cities lie on its border: Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati to the southeast, and Pasay to the south.

With a population of 1,660,714 Manila proper is the second most populous city in the Philippines behind neighboring Quezon City. The city's inhabitants, however, inhabit an area of only 38.55 square kilometers, making Manila not only the most densely populated city in the Philippines but also the most densely populated city in the world.[3]

The city is divided into six legislative districts and consists of sixteen geographical districts: Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo. Within their precincts can be found areas of bustling commerce and some of the most historically and culturally significant iconic landmarks in the country as well as the seat of the executive and judicial branches of the government. It is home to many scientific and educational institutions, as well as numerous sport facilities. These make the city a major political, commercial, cosmopolitan, cultural, educational, religious, and transportation center of the Philippines.

The earliest written accounts of the city date back to the Spanish era which describe a native settlement already existing in the area when the Spanish first arrived. Manila eventually became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila–Acapulco galleon trade route leading to it being called the "Pearl of the Orient". Later, it saw the arrival of the Americans who made contributions to the city's urban planning and development only to have most of those improvements lost in the devastation of World War II. Since then the city has been rebuilt.

HistoryEdit

Main article: History of Manila

Manila was first known as Ginto (land of gold) or Suvarnadvipa by its neighboring provinces, and was officially the Kingdom of Maynila. The Kingdom of Maynila flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty as a result of trade relations with China. Ancient Tondo has always been the traditional capital of the empire. Its rulers were equivalents to kings and not mere chieftains, and they were addressed as panginuan or panginoon ("lords"), anak banwa ("son of heaven") or lakandula ("lord of the palace"). During the 13th century, the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter at the shores of the Pasig river, on top of previous older towns. There is also early evidence of Manila being invaded by the Indianized empire of Majapahit, due to the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which inscribed its conquest by Maharaja Hayam Wuruk.[4] Saludong or Selurong which is a historical name for the city of Manila is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu, and Kalka.[4]

File:EscoltaManila1899.jpg

During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei decided to break the Dynasty of Tondo's monopoly in the China trade by attacking it and establishing the state of Selurong (now Manila) as a Bruneian satellite-state.[5] A new dynasty under the Islamized Rajah Salalila. was also established to challenge the House of Lakandula in Tondo. Islam was further strengthened by the arrival to the Philippines of traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia.[6] The multiple states competing over the territory and the people of the islands simplified Spanish colonization by allowing its conquistadors to effectively employ a strategy of divide and conquer for rapid conquest.

Manila was temporarily threatened by the invasion of Chinese Pirate-Warlord Limahong before it became the seat of the colonial government of Spain when it officially controlled the Philippine Islands for over three centuries from 1565 to 1898. During the British occupation of the Philippines, the city was occupied by Great Britain for two years from 1762–1764 as part of the Seven Years War.[7] The city remained the capital of the Philippines under the government of the provisional British governor, acting through the Archbishop of Manila and the Real Audiencia.[8] Armed resistance to the British centred in Pampanga.[8]

Manila also became famous during the Manila-Acapulco trade which lasted for three centuries and brought goods from as far as Mexico and Peru all the way to Southeast Asia.

In 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. Under the American control, the new government invited Daniel Burnham to plan a modern Manila.[9] The Burnham Plan was a project that attempted to create Manila as Paris on the Prairie, with a vision of a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Luneta to the present Taft Avenue. The Philippines Capitol was to rise on the Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the sea, and would form, with the buildings of different government bureaus and departments, a mighty quadrangle, lagoon in the center and a monument to Rizal at its Luneta end. Of Burnham’s proposed government center, only three units were built: the Legislative Building and the building of the Finance and Agricultural departments, which were completed on the eve of the War. By then, President Manuel L. Quezon had doomed the Burnham Plan by creating a new capital outside Manila, which was named after him, Quezon City

File:Manila Walled City Destruction May 1945.jpg

Manila was the site of the most fierce battle in the Pacific theater during the war. During the battle, Manila became a city of bloodbath in Asia where 100,000 civilians were killed.[10] It was the second most devastated city in the world after Warsaw during the Second World War. Since then the city has been rebuilt.

During the Marcos dictatorship, the Manila metropolitan area region was enacted as an independent entity in 1975 encompassing several cities and towns. During the Lacson era, also known as The Golden Age,[11] Manila was revitalized and became once again the pearl of the orient, which Manila has earned before the outbreak of World War II.

On 1995, Alfredo Lim became the mayor, and was known for his anti-crime crusades. When Lim ran for the presidency during the 1998 general elections, Lito Atienza was elected as city mayor who continued the project of Mayor Alredo Lim. Atienza was known for renovating most of the city's plaza, and projects such as the Mahal ko si Lolo, Mahal ko si Lola, a project for the elderly citizens of the city. He was the Mayor of Manila for 3 terms (9 years).[12] The current mayor, Alfredo Lim, who immediately reversed all of Atienza's project[13] since stepping as a mayor, because according to Manila residents, Atienza's project made little contributions to the improvements of the city. On July 17, 2008, councilor Dennis Alcoreza, filed human rights complaints before the Commission on Human Rights, against Lim, and other Manila officials.[14] Twenty four Manila officials also resigned because of the maltreatment of Lim's police forces.

During the 2010 city elections, Alfredo Lim won against secretary Lito Atienza. Medical centers, schools and benefits are present on his administration. When Typhoon Ketsana battered the Philippines, 80% of the city was submerged with cars clogged up street by street[15] with the district of Santa Mesa being the most devastated district due to its geographical location.

GeographyEdit

Main article: Geography of Manila
File:Manila Bay Landsat 2000.jpg

Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila bay. The Pasig river bisects the city in the middle. Almost all of the city sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig river and on some land reclaimed from Manila bay. The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out due to the urbanization of the city. Manila lies 800 miles (1,300 km) from mainland Asia.[16] The city occupies an area of 38.55 square kilometers and was divided into 897 barangays, the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines. Each barangay has its own chairperson and councilors. For administrative convenience, all the barangays in Manila are grouped into 100 zones and which are further grouped into 16 geographical districts. These zones and districts have no form of local government. These 16 geographical districts are further grouped into the six legislative districts of Manila.

ClimateEdit

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila features a tropical wet and dry climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20 °C and going higher than 38 °C. However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season from January through April, and a relatively lengthy wet season from May through December.


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Environmental issuesEdit

File:Manila Smog.jpg

Largely due to industrial waste and heavy reliance on automobiles, Manila suffers from air pollution[17][18] in the form of smog[19] which affects 98% of the residents of the city[20] and results in more than 4,000 deaths per year.[21] Open dump sites and industrial waste contribute to increasing pollution within the city.[22] Several rivers in Manila have been considered biologically dead. The Pasig, where 150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste were dumped daily according to a report in 2003, is now one of the most polluted rivers in the world.[23] The Tinajeros-Tullahan river, located in northern Metro Manila, was reported to be the most polluted river in the city.Template:Citation needed

Lack of adequate infrastructure is one of the causes of pollution in the city.[15] The district of Ermita was the most air polluted district in the city.[22] As a flood prone city, Manila faced a catastrophe in 2009 which submerged more than 80% of the city, spreading sewage and pollutants in the process.[15] Metro Manila was reported to have the fourth-most polluted air in the world[24] with a level of pollution 300% above the allowable level.[22]

Manila also faces a heavy problem of littering.[25]

DemographicsEdit

Template:Philippine Census As of the 2007 census, the population of the city was 1,660,714 making it the second most populous city in the Philippines.[26]

Population densityEdit

Manila is the most densely populated city in the world with 43,079 inhabitants per kmTemplate:Sup.[3] District 6 is listed as being the most dense with 68,266 inhabitants per kmTemplate:Sup, followed by the first two districts with 64,936 and 64,710, respectively, and district 5 being the least dense with 19,235.[27]

Manila's population density dwarfs that of Kolkata (27,774 inhabitants per kmTemplate:Sup), Mumbai (22,937 inhabitants per kmTemplate:Sup), Paris (20,164 inhabitants per kmTemplate:Sup), Dhaka (19,447 inhabitants per kmTemplate:Sup), Shanghai (16,364 inhabitants per kmTemplate:Sup), with its most dense district of Nanshi's 56,785 density), and Tokyo (10,087 inhabitants per kmTemplate:Sup).[28]

But when accounting for the entire urban area, Metro Manila drops to 60th place with 14,100 people/kmTemplate:Sup in a land area of 1,425 kmTemplate:Sup, which includes the area of Greater Manila Area.[29][28]

LanguagesEdit

The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog of surrounding areas, and this Manila form of speaking Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment. Meanwhile, English is the language most widely used in education and business throughout the Metro Manila region. A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, which was a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities and colleges, and many children of European, Arab, Indian, Latin American, or other migrants or expatriates also speak their parents' languages at home, aside from English and/or Filipino for everyday use. Minnan Chinese (known as Lannang-oe) is spoken by the city's Chinese-Filipino community.

EconomyEdit

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File:Roxas Boulevard.jpg

Manila's economy is diverse and multifaceted. With its excellent protected harbor, Manila serves as the nation's chief seaport. In addition, it is a major publishing center for the Philippines.[30]

Diverse manufacturers produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also employ many residents. Additionally, local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra, and coconut oil.[30] The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city.

File:Robinsons Place Manila Pedro Gil.jpg

Tourism is also a thriving industry. Being one of the major tourist destinations in the country, the city attracts over 1 million visitors[30] from all over the world annually. Most tourist sites are located within the districts of Binondo, the districts of Ermita and Malate and the Old Walled City, Intramuros.

Modern shopping malls dot the city especially in the areas of Malate and Ermita. SM City Manila, part of the country's largest chain of malls, stands behind the Manila City Hall. Besides SM City Manila, two other SM Supermalls were established in the city, the SM Quiapo and the SM City San Lazaro, which became one of the most premiere malls of the city. Other notable premiere malls in Manila are Robinsons Place Manila, the biggest mall in the city and the Harrison Plaza, one of the city's oldest shopping malls.

Every district in the city with the exception of Port Area has its own public market, locally called the pamilihang bayan or palengke. Public markets are often divided into two sections, namely the dry goods section and the wet goods section. Commerce in these public markets is lively, especially in the early morning. Under the urban renewal program of the Atienza's administration, some of the public markets had been refurbished and given a fresher look. The city, despite being modern, has flea markets in the areas of Divisoria and Quiapo, where cheap buys or goods are being sold at rock-bottom prices.

Culture and contemporary lifeEdit

FeastsEdit

There are several notable events in the city. Manila Day ("Araw ng Manila"), was first proclaimed by Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962. Since then, it has been annually commemorated the founding of the city, under the patronage of John the Baptist. The Feast of the Black Nazarene was celebrated every January 9 that draws thousands of devotees yearly. Even each district has its own fest locally known as fiesta literally as festivals, after achieving recognition in their own rights.

MuseumsEdit

File:Philippines National Museum.jpg

As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila houses a number of notable museums. Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila's most prominent museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. The Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other revolutionary leaders. The Metropolitan Museum of Manila exhibits the Filipino arts and culture. The Museum of Manila is the city-owned museum that exhibits the city's culture and history.

Manila is also home to other notable museums of the country, namely the Museo Pambata, a children's museum, the Museum of Philippine Political History, which exhibits notable political events in the country, the National Museum of the Philippines (which includes the Museum of the Filipino People) of which exhibits life, culture and history of the country, the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned and the San Agustin Church Museum, which houses religious artifacts, Plaza San Luis, a public museum, the UST Museum of Arts and Sciences and the DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Art and Design (mcad), both of which are university museums dedicated to science and technology, and contemporary art respectively.

ReligionEdit

The cosmopolitan atmosphere and cultural diversity of Manila is reflected in the number of places for worshipping throughout the city. The freedom of worship in the Philippines, which has existed since the creation of the republic, allowed the diverse population to build their sacred sites without the fear of persecution. People of different denominations are represented here with the presence of Christian churches, Buddhist temples, Jewish synagogues, and Islamic mosques.

File:Sschurch1.jpg

Roman Catholicism is the primary religion of the city. Almost all of the city's population are Roman Catholics. Manila is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila, the oldest archdiocese in the country, and the Primate of the Philippines.[32] The archdiocese's offices is located in the Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception in Intramuros.

Manila is home to three other basilicas, besides the Manila Cathedral, namely, the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, Minor Basilica of St. Lorenzo Ruiz and the Basilica Minore de San Sebastian.

Being the seat of the Spanish colonial government in past centuries, it has been used as the base of numerous Roman Catholic missions to the Philippines. Among the religious orders that have gone to the Philippines include the Dominicans, the Jesuits, the Franciscans, the Augustinians, the Augustinian Recollects, the Benedictines, the Sisters of St. Paul of Chartres, the Vincentian Fathers, the Congregatio of the Immaculati Cordis Mariae, and the De La Salle Christian Brothers.

File:Manila Cathedral exterior.jpg

Other notable churches in the city include San Agustin Church in Intramuros, the shrine of the canonically crowned image of Nuestra Señora de Consolación y Correa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site,[32] and a favorite wedding place of notable people and one of two fully air-conditioned churches in the city; the Binondo Church, also known as Basilica Minore de San Lorenzo Ruiz; Malate Church, the shrine of Nuestra Señora de Remedios; Ermita Church, home of the oldest Marian Image in the Philippines, Nuestra Señora de Guia; Tondo Church, home of the century-old ivory image of Sto. Niño (Child Jesus); and Sta. Ana Church, shrine of the canonically crowned image of Nuestra Senora de los Desamparados.

Protestantism is the second largest religion in the city. Manila is the site of some of the older and larger Protestant churches in the Philippines. While most of the older churches established by American missionaries are located within the city's limits, a greater number of the larger churches are located in the suburbs and satellite cities.

After the Second World War, a great influx of foreign Protestant missionaries came to the islands among which are the Baptists, Nazarenes, Pentecostals, and the Christian and Missionary Alliance. They established churches and schools throughout the islands making Manila their headquarters of operations. The Bible Baptist had also established places of worship throughout the city.

Aside from the Evangelical Christians, Manila is also the home of most of the country's Mainline Protestants. The Pro-Cathedral of the Saint Stephen, the center of the Episcopal Diocese of Central Philippines of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines is also found in the city. The mainly Ilocano revolutionary church Iglesia Filipina Independiente is headquartered in the city. Both of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines and the Iglesia Filipina Independiente belong to the Anglican Communion.

The largest entirely indigenous Christian church in the Philippines, and the largest independent church in Asia, the Iglesia ni Cristo has its base in the city. Iglesia has numerous chapels and churches across the city, notable for their narrow-pointed spires.

The city also hosts other faiths. There are many Buddhist and Taoist temples built by the Chinese community in Manila. The Quiapo district is home to a sizable Muslim population in Manila, where Masjid Al-Dahab is located. There is also a large Hindu temple for the Indian population, and a Sikh Temple was also erected. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints built a temple within the city. There once was a synagogue in Malate for the small Jewish community in the Philippines; a new synagogue has since been erected in neighboring city of Makati, along Tordesillas Street.

TourismEdit

File:Ccp1.jpg

Tourism is vital to Manila, with over 1 million tourist visiting annually. The city has been one of the premiere tourist destinations in the East. Within Manila lies several notable landmarks in the Philippines which are very popular tourist destinations, such as the 1322 Golden Empire at Roxas Boulevard, the Apolinario Mabini Shrine, Bahay Tsinoy, Basilica of San Sebastian, the Baywalk, Chinatown, Coconut PalaceTemplate:Ref label, Cultural Center of the PhilippinesTemplate:Ref label, Districts of Ermita and Malate, DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Arts and Design, Embassy of the United States in Manila, Fort Santiago, Intramuros, Malacañang Palace, Malate Church, Manila Boardwalk, Manila Cathedral, Manila City Hall, The Manila Hotel, Manila Ocean Park, Manila Central Post Office, Manila Yacht Club, Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, Metropolitan Museum of Manila, Metropolitan Theater, Museo Pambata, the Museum of Manila, The Museum of Philippine Political History, National Library of the Philippines, National Museum of the Philippines (including the Museum of the Filipino People), Paco Park, Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned, Plaza Lorenzo Ruiz, Plaza Miranda, Quiapo Church, Quirino Grandstand, Rajah Sulayman Plaza, Remedios Circle, Rizal Park, Robinsons Place Manila, San Agustin Church, the San Agustin Church Museum, SM City Manila, SM City San Lazaro, SM City Santa MesaTemplate:Ref label, The Supreme Court of the Philippines, UST Museum of Arts and Sciences and the Victims of Martial Law Memorial Wall-Bonifacio Shrine. Manila also host several sporting venues including the national sporting venue, the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and the city-owned San Andrés Gym.

CityscapeEdit

OverviewEdit

Manila's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. Most of Manila's historical structures were wiped out during its liberation. After the battle, Manila was rebuilt and some of the historical buildings were reconstructed. The current urban landscape of Manila is one of modern and contemporary architecture.

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Places of interestEdit

File:Supreme Court of the Philippines.jpg
File:National Library of the Philippines, Feb 14.JPG

Numerous notable landmarks are located in Manila, such as Rizal Park, and the historical Intramuros. Rizal park is a crescent-shaped 58 hectare (143 acres)[33] park that lies within the heart of Manila's cultural and business district, as an honor and dedication to the country's national hero José Rizal, who was executed in the same place where the park was created by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. Among the attractions in Rizal Park is the Chinese and Japanese Gardens, the National Museum of the Philippines, The National Library of the Philippines, the Planetarium, the Orchidarium and Butterfly Pavilion, the park auditorium, a landscaped relief map of the Philippines, the fountain, the children's lagoon, the chess plaza, the Quirino Grandstand and the Manila Ocean Park, which features a wide variety of marine animals. The flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country. In the northern most part of the city lie three cemeteries: the Loyola and Chinese cemeteries, and Manila North Green Park, the largest public cemetery in the Manila metropolitan area.

The districts of Ermita and Malate, being a popular tourist destination, showcase a wide variety of hotels, restaurants, clubs, bars, cafes, art and antique shops. The nightlife offers everything from cultural exhibitions to discothèques, casinos, entertainment lounges, and fashionable cafes.

Parks and recreational areasEdit

File:Rizal Park Facing Quirino Grandstand.jpg

Manila was the site of the country's premiere park, Rizal Park, which was erected for the country's national hero, José Rizal. Besides having parks and green areas, Manila is the home to several plazas, such as the Plaza Balagtas and Plaza Miranda, the site of the 1971 politics-related bombings. Within Manila lies notable parks and green areas, such as the Rajah Sulayman Park, Manila Boardwalk, Liwasang Bonifacio, Mehan Garden, Paco Park, Remedios Circle, the Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, Pandacan Linear Park, and the Malacañang Garden. Within the city lies the cemeteries of the Manila Chinese Cemetery, La Loma CemeteryTemplate:Ref label, the Manila South Green Park and the Manila North Green Park, notable as being the resting place of several historical figures and being the largest cemetery in the Manila metropolitan area. Both the Manila North and South Green Park are city-owned cemeteries. A large number recreational areas are found scattered within the city.

DistrictsEdit

GeographicalEdit

File:Ph map manila.svg

The city of Manila is divided into sixteen officially-defined geographical districts. These districts only exist for administrative convenience and do not have their own sets of elected officials. Each geographical district is further divided into officially-defined "zones," which are clusters of two or more barangays.

District Barangays Population
(2007 census)
Area
(has.)
Pop. density
(per kmTemplate:Sup)
Binondo 10 12,100 66.11 18,304.1
Ermita 13 6,205 158.91 3,904.8
Intramuros 5 5,015 67.26 7,455.7
Malate 57 78,132 259.58 30,099.8
Paco 43 69,300 278.69 24,866.7
Pandacan 38 76,134 166.00 45,862.9
Port Area 5 48,684 315.28 15,441.4
Quiapo 16 23,138 84.69 27,322.0
Sampaloc 192 255,613 513.71 49,758.5
San Andres Bukid 65 116,585 168.02 69,386.2
San Miguel 12 16,115 91.37 17,636.9
San Nicolas 15 43,225 163.85 26,380.5
Santa Ana 34 62,184 169.42 36,703.5
Santa Cruz 82 118,779 309.01 38,438.1
Santa Mesa 51 98,901 261.01 37,892.2
Tondo 259 630,604 865.13 72,891.6

Data presented by the National Statistics Office still do not reflect the 16-district configuration recognized by the city government of Manila. It recognizes neither the western area of Santa Ana that now belongs to the fifth congressional district of Manila as the geographical district of San Andres Bukid, nor the area of Sampaloc south of the Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard which now belongs to the sixth congressional district as the geographical district of Santa Mesa.

LegislativeEdit

Main article: Legislative districts of Manila
File:Manila Congressional Districts.png

The legislative districts of Manila serve as the constituencies for the election of the city's representatives to the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines and of the regular members to the Sangguniang Panlungsod (City Council). Each district elects one representative to the House of Representatives and four SP members to the Sanggunian.

  • The 1st District (2007 population: 407,331) is Manila's (and the country's) most densely populated congressional district. It covers the western portion of Tondo that lies along Manila Bay.
  • The 2nd District (2007 population: 223,273) comprises the eastern inland portion of the geographical district of Tondo unofficially known as Gagalangin.

GovernmentEdit

File:Manilagovt.jpg

The current mayor for the 2007–2010 term is Alfredo Lim, who is making a comeback following a three-year stint as a Senator. The city mayor is restricted to three consecutive terms, totaling nine years, although a mayor can be elected again after an interruption of one term. Isko Moreno is the city's incumbent vice-mayor. The vice-mayor heads the legislative arm composed of the elected city councilors, six from each of the city's six legislative districts. Current district representatives of the city are Benjamin Asilo, representing the 1st District, Carlo Lopez for the 2nd District, Zenaida Angping for the 3rd District, Trisha Bonoan – David for the 4th District, Amado Bagatsing in the 5th District and Rosenda Ann Ocampo in the 6th District.

Manila being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city. Planning for the development for being the center of government started during the early years of American colonialization to the country when they envisioned a well designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington D.C.. These improvements were and eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon. A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City. Several government agencies have set-up their headquarters in Quezon City but several key government offices still resides in Manila. However, many of the plans were substantially altered after the devastation of Manila during World War II and the subsequent administrations.

The city, as the Official Capital, still hosts the Office of the President. Aside from these, important institutions such as the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the Departments of Budget and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment, and Tourism still call the city home. Manila also hosts important national institutions such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum and the Philippine General Hospital.

City sealEdit

The City Seal of Manila depicts the words Lungsod ng Maynila and Pilipinas, Filipino for City of Manila and Philippines, in a circle around a shield. The circle also contains six yellow stars representing the city's six congressional districts. The city seal composes of the shield, in the shape of pre-colonial people's shield, depicts the city's nickname Pearl of the Orient on top, a sea lion in the middle, in reference to the city's Spanish influences, and the waves of the Pasig river and Manila bay in the bottom. The colors of the seal mirror that of the flag of the Philippines. The sea lion in the seal of Manila was adopted by Singapore into its merlion.

EducationEdit

Main article: Education in the Philippines
File:IARFA building.JPG

Manila is home to majority of the colleges and universities in Metro Manila. The University Belt, informally located in the districts of Malate, Ermita, Intramuros, San Miguel, Quiapo, and Sampaloc is the colloquial term for the high concentration of institutions of higher education that are located in these districts. The university belt composed of several state universities such as the Philippine Normal University, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Technological University of the Philippines and the University of the Philippines. Also located within the university belt are several Catholic schools such as the Adamson University, Colegio de San Juan de Letran, College of the Holy Spirit, Sacred Heart of Jesus Catholic School, Saint Paul University, San Beda College, San Sebastian College, Philippine Christian University, University of Santo Tomas, De La Salle University and De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde. Within the city are several private schools such as the Arellano University, Centro Escolar University, Emilio Aguinaldo College, Far Eastern University, Lyceum of the Philippines University, Mapúa Institute of Technology, University of Manila, Philippine Women's University, Technological Institute of the Philippines, and the University of the East and the city-owned universities Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila and Gat Andrés Bonifacio University.

The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department of Education, refers to the city's three-tier public education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools[34] and the two city-owned universities.

The city also plays host to Manila Science High School, the Philippines' pilot science high school; the National Museum, where the Spoliarium of Juan Luna is housed; the Metropolitan Museum, the premier museum of modern and contemporary visual arts; Museo Pambata (Children's Museum), a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning; and, the National Library, the repository of the country's printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources.

InfrastructureEdit

TransportationEdit

Main article: Transportation in Manila

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File:LRT Recto Station.jpg

Manila, being a major city, has various transportation options, the most famous being the jeepney, which has been in use since the years immediately following World War II.[35] In more recent years, air-conditioned Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota Kijang was often used for the service, which have begun to compete with jeepneys. Along with buses, jeepneys and FX ply fixed routes for a set price, though each mode has different routes.

On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs, "tricycles" (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw), and "trisikads" or "sikads" (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs). In some areas, especially in Divisoria, two stroke motors are fitted to the pedicabs and are used to transport goods. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still used in the streets of Binondo and Intramuros, but mostly for tourists. Which mode of for-hire used depends upon the distance to be traveled, the cost, and the width of the streets. All types of public transport are privately owned and operated under government franchise.

File:NAIA Terminal 3 2009 MC.jpg

The city is serviced by the Manila Light Rail Transit System, popularly known as LRT, as distinct from the MRT in other parts of Metro Manila.[36] Development of the railway system began in the 1970s under the Marcos administration, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. In recent years, the system has undergone a multi-billion dollar expansion.[36] Two lines provide service to the city: the LRT 1 line (Yellow Line) that runs along the length of Taft Avenue (R-2) and Rizal Avenue (R-9), and the LRT 2 line (Purple Line) that runs along Ramon Magsaysay Blvd (R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Santolan in Pasig City.

The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways lies within the city. Railways extend north to the city of San Fernando in Pampanga and south to Legazpi City in Albay, though only the southern railway is currently in operation.

The Port of Manila, located in the vicinity of Manila Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines.

The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and the Pasig River Ferry Service.

Medical facilitiesEdit

File:UST Hospital.jpg

Manila is headquarters to the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the World Health Organization Country Office for the Philippines, main office of the Department of Health, and several private and public hospitals and medical centers.

One of the many programs of the Department of Tourism is the promotion of Medical Tourism in the Philippines. Manila hosts a large number of wellness centers and spa facilities.

The Manila Health Department, which responsible for the planning and implementation of the health programs of the city government, operates 44 health centers and lying-in facilities scattered throughout the city.[37] A number of the notable hospitals in the city are the Manila Doctors' Hospital, Philippine General Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, San Lazaro Hospital, the University of Santo Tomas Hospital and the city-owned Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center.[32]

International relationsEdit

Manila has a number of sister cities worldwide, as classified by the city government. Each sister city is divided into three parts, namely the International, Friendly location and Local City.[38] Manila has 33 International Sister Cities, three Friendly Location Cities and two Local Sister Cities.

Twin towns – Sister cities Edit

  International
Template:Flagicon Acapulco, Mexico
Template:Flagicon Astana, Kazakhstan
Template:Flagicon Bangkok, Thailand(1997)
Template:Flagicon Beijing, China (2002)[38][39][40]
Template:Flagicon Bucharest, Romania(1986)
Template:Flagicon Cartagena, Colombia
Template:Flagicon Guangzhou, China (1982)[38][41]
Template:Flagicon Haifa, Israel(1971)
Template:Flagicon Havana, Cuba
Template:Flagicon Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Template:Flagicon Honolulu, USA
Template:Flagicon Incheon, South Korea
Template:Flagicon Jakarta, Indonesia
Template:Flagicon Jersey City, USA
Template:Flagicon Yagi, Japan
Template:Flagicon Lima, Peru
Template:Flagicon Madrid, Spain (1987)[38][42]
Template:Flagicon Málaga, Spain[38]
Template:Flagicon Maui County, USA
Template:Flagicon Montreal, Canada (2005)[38][43]
Template:Flagicon Moscow, Russia
Template:Flagicon New Delhi, India
Template:Flagicon Nice, France
Template:Flagicon Sacramento, USA
Template:Flagicon San Francisco, USA
Template:Flagicon Santiago, Chile
Template:Flagicon Seberang Perai, Malaysia
Template:Flagicon Sydney, Australia
Template:Flagicon Taichung, Taiwan
Template:Flagicon Taipei, Taiwan (1966)[38][44]
Template:Flagicon Takatsuki, Japan[38]
Template:Flagicon Tehran, Iran
Template:Flagicon Winnipeg, Canada (1979)[38][45]
Template:Flagicon Yokohama, Japan[38][46]
  Friendly location
Template:Flagicon Busan, Republic of Korea[38]
Template:Flagicon Shanghai, China (1983)[38]
Template:Flagicon Xi'an, China[38]
  Local City
Template:Flagicon Cebu City, Philippines[38]
Template:Flagicon Davao City, Philippines[38]


See alsoEdit

Template:Wikipedia-Books Template:Portal

CitationsEdit

Notes
i.   Template:NoteWithin the boundaries of Manila and Pasay City. The jurisdictional border lies on Vicente Sotto Street.
ii.   Template:NoteIn dispute with Quezon City. Current address used by the mall was Quezon City, based on its geographical location. Jurisdiction was in Manila.
iii.   Template:NoteWithin the shared border of Manila and Caloocan City. La Loma Cemetery lies within Caloocan City, although some area of the park lies within Manila.

FootnotesEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Template:Sister project links

Template:S-start Template:Succession box Template:Succession box Template:S-end

Template:Largest cities of the Philippines

Template:Geographic location

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